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生态文明是人类一个新的认知革命

      Ecological civilization isa new cognitive revolution of mankind

      生态文明是人类一个新的认知革命

      Keynote speech by Ms. Wang Ping, Founder and Chairperson of China Social Entrepreneur Foundation(YouChange) at Eco Forum Global Annual Conference2017

April 2017, the United States

      友成基金会创始人、理事长王平在第十一届国际生态文明论坛上的主题发言

      2017年4月,美国

Ladies and gentlemen, Good morning!

      It is mygreat honor to be invited by Dr. Cobb to this forum and deliver a speech forecological civilization today.

尊敬的各位来宾,上午好!

      很荣幸受到柯布博士的邀请,来美国参加这个以生态文明为主题的论坛,并有幸在此致辞。

      I would like to share my opinions and thoughts on eco-civilization, alsoelaborate our participation in this great movement.

      我想谈谈我对生态文明的想法和思考,以及我们可以怎么做。

      Where is the root? - Change the cognition

      根在哪里?——改变认知

      Recently, the book Brief History of Humankind caused shocksto many. It tells us a very simple truth that history of mankind is thedevelopment process of human cognition and is caused by the cognitive changesof man. Cognitive revolution contains a lot of stages and forms our historicalleaps. Its result is what we see ourselves today, and related to our cognition.According to this book, the secret for Homo sapiens surpassing animals and theearly other humans lies in their social behaviors and closer cooperation. Thecognitive revolution begins with the imagination for a better future. A commonimagination will lead to a common faith and belief. So, by changing the storyand the recognition, we can change the way of cooperation. The tipping pointseparating history from biology is this very cognitive revolution. It begins fromthe agricultural revolution to the later series, including the industrialrevolution. These imagined stories form the law, the declaration, the system,the norms and the faith of a community. So originally there were no paths inthe world that we see today, and paths generate from men’s walking.

      最近有一本书《人类简史》,非常震撼。这本书告诉我们一个非常简单的道理,就是人类历史其实是人类认知的发展过程,是由人的认知变化引起的。认知革命有很多的阶段,形成人类历史性的飞跃,其结果就是我们看到的人类现在的样貌。这一切都与我们自己的认知相关。这本书所讲的“智人胜出”——早期智人与其他原始人类和动物相比,胜出的秘诀就在于智人的社会行为和更紧密的合作关系。认知革命始于对美好未来的想象,大家一起想象,就能形成共同的信念和信仰。而改变故事、改变认知,我们就可以改变合作的方式。认知革命正是人类历史从生物学中脱颖而出的关键点,从农业革命开始,到后来包括工业革命在内的一系列,都是每一时代想象的故事形成了法律、宣言、制度、规范和对共同体的信仰体系。所以我们看到世界本来没有路,路是人走出来的。

      Old Cognition: Individualism and Capitalism

      旧认知:个人主义和资本主义

      In the past 300years of industrial civilization development, inspired by industrialtechnology, organization and system innovation, human intelligence andcreativity were deeply developed and fully released. While huge material wealthand spiritual wealth were created, there were a large number of socialproblems, such as environmental pollution, depletion of resources, wealthpolarization, conflict, war, and so on.

      在过去300多年工业文明发展进程中,在工业技术、组织、制度创新的激发下,人类智慧和创造力得以深度开发和充分释放,创造了巨大的物质财富和精神财富,但也带来了大量的社会问题,诸如环境污染、资源枯竭、贫富分化、冲突和战争等等。

      We believe thatthese social problems are the inevitable products of the inherent contradictionof industrial civilization.

      我们认为,这些社会问题,是工业文明内在矛盾的必然产物。

      In the socialrevolution dominated by industrialization and big machine production, there areat least three endogenous structural contradictions:

      在以工业化、大机器生产主导的这场社会革命中,至少出现了三对内生的结构性矛盾:

      First, thecontradiction between the growth of material wealth and the supply of resourcesand the carrying capacity of the environment,

      Second, the contradictionbetween the rational pursuit of the individual and the overall development ofthe society,

And the third, thecontradiction between the nations and the human community.

      第一,物质财富的增长与资源供给力及环境承载力之间的矛盾;

      第二,个体理性追求与社会整体发展之间的矛盾;

      第三,民族国家与人类共同体之间的矛盾。

      The threecontradictions are historical and logical, leading to the disorder of therelations between people, nature and society.

      这三对矛盾既是历史经验的,又是逻辑的,从而导致人与自然、人与人、人与社会关系的失范。

      Why are there thesecontradictions?

      为什么会出现这样的矛盾?

      I think fundamentallyit is a problem at the cognitive level. Simply speaking, the value is toosimple and single minded.

      我认为是从根本上出现了认知层面的问题,简单来说就是价值观太单一。

      Mankind experiencedthe dark middle age. At that time, the personal value was denied. As itdeveloped to the industrial civilization, the personal value played aparticularly big role in promoting social progress in the early stage. However,with the continued development of industrial revolution, the recognition ofmost people has been completely ossified. It seems that there is only onevoice, one universal value and one universal truth, which is pursuing economicdevelopment and wealth expansion only.

      人类经历过黑暗的中世纪。在那时被否定的个人价值在人类进入工业文明早期时对推动社会进步起到了特别重要的作用。但随着工业革命的持续发展,大多数人的认知现在都已经僵化了。只有一个声音,只有一个普世价值,只有一个普遍真理——只追求经济发展和财富的扩张。

      The existing economicrules are developed by winners of the market competition. The goal of the rulesis simple, which is maximization of the interest of shareholders. What is thevalue behind this story? Individual value is prior to common good. The resultof Matthew Effect is that the stronger is always the winner and the winnertakes all. This is the rule of the animal world and social Darwinism.

      现有的经济规则是强者制定的。资本主义制度的目标就是简单的股东利益最大化。而这套话语背后的价值观是什么呢?就是个人价值比社会价值重要。而马太效应的结果只能是强者恒强,赢家通吃。这是动物世界的规则,是社会达尔文主义。

      The superstructuresuch as laws and political system also maximize the economy development and theprotection of vested interest group. Thus, majority of people who has no sayingon his own interest is ignored, and such ignorance leads to two worlds inparallel and causes a great contradiction. Especially the populism rising afterthe financial crisis in 2008, as well as the international terrorism are theexpression of the social discontents. Financial instruments and technologicalmeans are becoming the accelerator to create these contradictions/conflicts.

      由法律、政治制度等构成的上层建筑,也是重在经济发展最大化和保护既得利益集团的,而对自己利益没有话语权的大多数群体则被忽略。这种忽略导致了两个平行世界,引发了极大的社会矛盾。特别是2008年金融危机之后兴起的民粹主义,以及国际恐怖主义等,都是这种社会不满的表达。而金融工具和科技手段则正在成为社会矛盾冲突的加速器。

      The current balancesheet based on financial accounting standards has become a common standard andlanguage for industrial civilization. It has promoted the rise of industrialcivilization but also has become the reason and force hindering the furtherdevelopment of industrial civilization, because it totally does not take intoaccount or reflect any external cost and external value. The single equilibriumin the economic and financial aspects results in the social and ecologicalimbalance, and this imbalance will eventually lead to economicunsustainability.

      现在的基于财务会计准则的资产负债表成为工业文明的一种通用标准和语言,它推动了工业文明的兴盛但也因此形成了阻碍工业文明进一步发展的原因和力量——因为它完全不考虑也不体现任何的外部性成本和外部性价值。仅就经济而言的单一平衡,导致了社会和生态的不平衡,并且这种不平衡最后必然导致经济的不可持续。

      The above defectionsare endogenous in the industrially civilized society, so it cannot be resolvedin the framework of industrial civilization itself.

      以上所述的种种缺陷,都因其内生于工业文明社会,所以在工业文明的框架下无法解决。

      To solve the problem,we need to find the root. We cannot just do some case-by-case improvements butneed to find a subversive theory. From the perspective of alternation ofcivilization, ecological civilization is a new cognitive revolution. It shallcall for new values and evaluation criteria.

      看到了这种趋势,我们要解决问题就要找到这个根,而不能再修修补补做些简单的就事论事的改良,而是要找到一种颠覆性的理论出来。从大到文明更替的角度来讲,生态文明就是一场新的认知革命,需要新的价值观和评价标准。

      New Cognition: Social value as the ecologicalcivilization of value

      新认知:以社会价值为价值观的生态文明

      Ecological civilization must regard the thorough change of the disorder of the relationsbetween people, nature and society as the fundamental goal. It is a new form ofcivilization that respects the ecology itself and is in line with theecological principles. Therefore, such a civilization pays more attention to thewhole society instead of just individuals, lays more emphasis on diversityrather than standardization and underlines openness rather than closeness, andhighlights on social synergy much more than on market competition. These basicprinciples of ecological civilization are those of the community of destiny ofhuman being and also the basic principles of the great harmony society that ourmankind has long been pursuing for.

      生态文明必须以能彻底改变人与自然、人与人、人与社会关系的失范为基本目标,是一种既尊重生态本身又符合生态原则的新的文明形式。因此这样的文明更注重社会性而不仅仅是个体、更强调多样性而不是标准化、更强调开放性而不是封闭性,更强调协作性而不是竞争性。生态文明的这些基本原则,事实上就是人类命运共同体的基本原则,也一直是我们人类追求的大同社会的基本原则。

      In the concept of value, we believe the valuethat respects the eco-system itself and in line with the ecological principlesis the social value. “Social value” consists of two words, “social” and“value”, indicating that the aim of social value is to value the society as awhole. From the ethical perspective of social value, the social-valued societymust be the sustainable society. And its view of freedom, equality anddevelopment shall also serve this purpose.

      在价值理念上,我们认为,一种既尊重生态本身又符合生态原则的价值观就是社会价值。社会价值由“社会”和“价值”两个词组成,价值的指向,是整个社会。从社会价值作为一种伦理观角度讲,社会价值必须以实现社会整体可持续发展为其唯一目的,其所蕴涵的自由观、平等观以及发展观等,都要为此目的服务。

      We believe that social value should express thefollowing principles:

      我们认为社会价值应该体现以下几个原则:

      1. The principle of integrity. Social valueregards the well-being of all mankind as its goal, and any individual ororganization in the human community can benefit from it.

      1、整体性原则。社会价值以全人类的福祉为其目标,任何人类共同体中人或组织,都能在此中受益共享。

      2. The principle of initiative. As social valueis the common well-being of all mankind, each person and every organization inthe human community shall be willing to take the efforts to promote the overallwellbeing.

     2、主动性原则。基于社会价值是全人类的共同福祉,因此,人类共同体中的每一个人、每一个组织,对整体发展都有主动关切的意愿和行动。

      3. The p rinciple of innovation. Humancivilization is always achieved through innovation. The problems, such aspoverty, health care and aged care problems, all need our innovative thinkingand innovative methods.

      3、创新性原则。人类的文明总是通过创新来实现的。对于那些一直伴随人类存在的诸多社会难题,例如贫困问题、健康问题、养老问题等等都需要我们有创新的思维和创新的方法。

      4. The principle of consistency. An obviousdrawback of industrial civilization is to solve the old problems by creating anew one, such as the paradox of so-called “development in economy first andimprovement of environment afterword”, the so-called dilemma between efficiencyand fairness and the so-called separation between aim and its approach. Allthese are derived from the stereo type of either/or and lack of coherence. Butin the eco-civilization, the synergy of all actions and all parties isrequired.

      4、合一性原则。工业文明明显的弊端,往往是通过产生新问题来解决旧问题。例如所谓的先发展后治理的悖论,所谓的效率和公平之间的困境,所谓的目的和实现目的的方法之间的分离,这一切都是源于非此即彼的观念的合一性的缺失。但在生态文明里,对所有行为的合一性已经成为一种要求。

      From the above, we can see that social value isnot only the value guidance for social welfare as the interest for all, butalso includes the requirements for the individual and organizational behaviors.It contains not only the concept of the value but also the systems and rules aswell as the comprehensive development of human being, the harmony of thesociety and the intergrowth of man and nature.

      由上述我们可以看到,社会价值不仅是一个以社会福祉为最大利益的价值引导,而且还包括了对个人和组织行为的要求。不仅包括价值理念,也包含了制度规则,包含了人的全面发展、人与社会的和谐相处、人与自然的共生。

      Newcognition: How to implement ecological civilization – 3A

      新认知:如何落实生态文明——三A

      After years of thinking, research and piloting,YouChange has created a set of 3A social value assessment system. The systemcan be used for the social value assessment of various types of organizations,including governments, enterprises and social organizations.

      经过多年的思考、研究和试点,友成基金会创立了一套3A社会价值评估体系,这个体系可以用以各种类型组织包括政府、企业、社会组织的社会价值评估。

      The assessment system evaluates and analyzes thesocial value of an organization from 3 aspects: Aim, Approach and Action. In theory, Aim addresses the range of thepublicity, urgency, and fairness of targeted social issues, Approach definesthe innovative and systematic solutions and Action measures the effectivenessof management and execution of an organization. These are key factorsdetermining the “quantity” of social value: The stronger the publicity, urgencyand fairness of the social issues are Aimed; the more innovative and systematicsolutions are Approached; and the stronger the effectiveness of management and executionare Acted, the higher the result of social value is achieved. Assuming that theability of execution is the same, the quantity of social value created can beassessed through a direct comparison between social issues aimed and solutionadopted.

      社会价值创新3A评估体系从Aim、Approach和Action三个方面来全面评估以及量化分析一个组织的社会价值。理论上而言,社会议题的公共性、公平性、紧迫性,解决方案的创新性和系统性,以及执行的有效性是决定社会价值“量”的关键因素:议题公共性、公平性、紧迫性越强(Aim),解决方案越创新、越系统(Approach),执行力越强(Action),其所产生的社会价值越大。在假设执行力一致的情况下,可从社会议题与解决方案两个维度直接比较出所创造社会价值的区别。

      3A is a systematic framework based on the studyof organizational behaviors. Just as the Balanced Score Card, which transferthe performance evaluation into the action, on the basis of organizationstrategy, instead of the traditional financial metrics. 3A will be able toassess the social values of an organization through the analysis of its Aim,Approach and Action. In this assessment framework, there are 3 layers ofindicators: The first layer consists of Aim, Approach and Action, and thesecond and third layers will vary according to the different types of theorganizations evaluated. Currently, this evaluation system is being used for evaluatingenterprises including start-up companies, listed companies, governments andsocial organizations.

      三A是基于在对组织行为研究基础之上提出的系统思路。正如平衡记分卡是从战略的角度而不是以财务量度为主来评估绩效,以使组织“策略”能够转变为“行动”,三A正是通过对其目标(Aim)、运行模式(Approach)和执行力(Action)三者的分析,得出一个组织创造社会价值的能力。在这个评估框架中,总共有三层指标体系,第一层由Aim、Approach和Action组成,第二层和第三层会因为评价的组织类型不同而发生变化,目前这套评估体系正被应用于企业包括创业型企业和上市公司,政府以及社会组织。

      3As not only provide a framework for social valueevaluation but also becomes a strategic analysis tool for organizations. At theAim level, analysis can be made on whether the corporate strategy reflects themission and vision of the enterprise and whether the enterprise's endowmentsand resources match the established strategy. At the Approach level, analysiscan be made on whether the business model and the operation and managementmodel support the strategy. At the Action level, the strengths and weaknessesof the organization's execution can be measured and analyzed.

      三A不仅提供了评估社会价值的一个框架,并且也可以成为包括企业在内的组织的战略分析工具。在Aim层次,可以分析企业的战略是否反映了企业的使命和愿景,可以分析企业的禀赋是否匹配所制定的战略,在Approach层,分析商业模式和运营管理模式是否支持战略,在Action层则可以检查和分析组织的执行力的优势和劣势。

      Another most important feature of this frameworkis the emphasis on the consistency among the indicators. The consistencyperspective refers to that the three indicators must be interlinked. Forexample, between Aim and Approach, it will be emphasized to do the right thingin the right way, and the real value and impact must be verified through theresult of Action of an organization.

      这个框架的另一个最主要的特点是强调指标之间的合一性和自洽性。所谓合一性,就是三个指标之间必须具有互相勾连,例如目标(Aim)和途径(Approach)之间,就会强调用正确的方法做正确的事,而真正的价值,必须通过行动转化力(Action)来验证。

(Example:A evaluation framework based on socialinnovative enterprise as the goal示例:一个基于社会创新型企业为目标的评估框架)

      At present, we can see a variety of evaluationsystems different from the traditional balance sheet appeared in the United States and Europe. For instance, Benefit Corporation (B-Corp),etc. are trying to measure the impact and value of an enterprise organizationincluding economic and a non-economic factors. But the biggest differencebetween 3A standards and these existing evaluation systems, is that 3A isalways mission-driven that is the most fundamental interests of mankind - more justice,more efficient and more sustainable development.

      当下,在美国和欧洲已经出现了多种不同于传统资产负债的评价体系,例如B-Corp等,试图从经济和非经济的角度来衡量一个企业组织的能力和价值。但三A 标准和已有这些评价系统的一个最大不同,就是3A的核心是以始为终,始终从一个组织的愿景和使命出发开始评估,要把Aim放在人类最根本的利益上——更公平,更有效率,更可持续的发展。

      Just as people are not living for eating, buteating is for living. The survival of enterprises in the era of ecologicalcivilization is not just for profit, but profitability is the condition forenterprises to create social value. What we want to do is to drive people’scognitive changes through the advocacy of social value and the implementationof 3A standards. Although not all people have such values, changes will still occurwith the changes of assessment standard. Our aim is to promote such a greatcognitive revolution of the ecological civilization.

      就像人活着不是为了吃饭,而吃饭是为了活着。生态文明时代的企业的生存不只是为了创造利润,而盈利是企业创造社会价值的条件。我们就是要通过社会价值的倡导和3A标准的实施来引导人们在认知上的变化。即便并不是所有人都有这样的价值观,或者是大多数人还没有意识到这是一个他们应该的生活方式,如果标准发生了改变,他们也会随之而改变。我们的目的就是要促成生态文明这样一场伟大的认知革命。

      Closing

      结语

Ladies and Gentlemen,

      The United States is a new country relatively,but on the pinnacle of industrial civilization; China is an ancient country andis having a great rejuvenation. Many people of insights in these two countrieshave realized some endogenous obstacles and contradictions of moderncivilization. Dr. Cobb is one of the most insightful among these people. Inoted that such an impressive international forum has been continued for elevenyears. Please allow me topay our highest tribute to Dr. Cobb, the forerunners in this revolution.  

      美国是一个新的国家,却是工业文明的巅峰王国;中国是一个古老的国家,正在进行伟大复兴。这两个国家的许多有识之士都意识到现代文明的一些内生障碍和矛盾。柯布博士就是这些有识之士中最有洞察力的一位。我发现,这样一个让我印象深刻的国际论坛已经持续了十一年,请允许我对柯布博士这样的先行者致以最崇高的敬意。

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